Target 4.A Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate:
Good progress has been made towards reducing child mortality. According to MOH data the under-five mortality has declined from 120 per 1,000 live births in 1991 to 17 per 1000 live birth in 2008; it means that the MDG target was achieved by 2008. No new official data is available to confirm if child mortality continues to decrease. The official MCH report for 2011 uses the data stated above.
Remaining Challenges and Post 2015 strategic Action
For the country to keep on track to achieve the MDG 4 and keep reducing child mortality it should:
- Improve the skills of service providers at neonatal care such as neonatal resuscitation services, infection control activities in service at all levels where this service is being provided.
- Keep the vaccination coverage over 95% and increase those that are under this average like measles, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines, focus on hinterland regions.
- Intensify or improve PHC renewal to ensure integrated child care at primary care level to intensify early detection of Diarrheas and Acute Respiratory Infection among other diseases.
- Ensure retention of skilled human resources –
- Ensure partnership
- Guyana has made good progress in the area of gender equality and has achieved gender parity.
- Passed the Domestic Violence Act 1996 and Sexual violence Act 2010
- UNFPA supports programmes against Gender based violence, sexual violence and women’s empowerment to enable women to protect themselves.
- Collaborates with the Ministry of Human Services (Women’s and Men’s Affairs Bureaux to implement programmes focusing on Gender Based Violence reduction among women and men.
- Teenage girls benefit from an innovative programme to reduce unplanned pregnancies and to help them return to school and continue their education. We know that enabling adolescent girls to delay pregnancy, ending discrimination against pregnant girls, and providing support to young mothers can help ensure that girls complete their education. Educated mothers can improve prospects for the whole family, thus helping to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty. Girls' secondary education provides high payoffs for poverty reduction, gender equality, labour force participation and reproductive health, including HIV prevention and women's and children's health and education status overall.
- UNFPA also supports Working with men and boys to change their traditional norms and values in the context of the power relations as well as their attitudes towards violence/ sexual violence. Some target groups include Footballers, barbers, Men in some Religious organizations and Prisoners
- UNFPA works with Help and Shelter to support Private Sector Partnerships and reach women and men in Work Places with information.
- UNFPA has established a Youth Advisory Group to be a voice and articulate adolescent and youth needs within the country; This group also reaches out to young women and young men in the context of understanding gender equality and gender socialization and do so through a variety of means such as outreach, satellite tables at places where young people congregate
- Reaching more men
- Changing the traditional norms and values of both men and women
Guyana is on track to achieving Universal Primary Education by 2015, and has achieved gender parity. The average attendance in primary school is 74% (Digest of education statistics 2010-2011)
Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education in Guyana, and national assessments are done at grades 2, 4, and 6 to determine readiness for the secondary level.
Guyana also has to its credit a well structured, two year nursery education programme which ensures readiness for primary school.
A high percentage of those children enrolled successfully complete primary school, however, is essential that all three indicators for this MDG goal – Enrollment, Completion and Level of Literacy, are achieved.
It is not only important that children complete primary school, but that they also attain the required level of literacy upon completion, to be able to progress to the next level in their development.
The remaining challenge is ensuring the provision of quality basic education for all children in Guyana, especially those in the hinterland and rural areas.
The issue of Equity:
Although hinterland regions recorded a high percentage of attendance (79%), Region 1 is still lagging behind with respect to primary education, and there are gaps and challenges that need to be addressed.
Schools in the hinterland are still without trained teachers, and some schools are still implementing multi-grade teaching, which impacts the quality of education.
Disparities in participation for children with disabilities, and other special needs are also still not fully addressed in the school system.
UNICEF continues to work with its partners in this area, to improve the quality and accessibility of education for children, and support the implementation of child friendly schools throughout Guyana.
- Support to the MoE and the Parliamentary Select Committee on Advocacy and capacity building for implementing alternative forms of discipline, and the elimination of corporal punishment in schools.
- Support for the Education Strategic Plan:
- Technical support to the development of an action plan for tracking and reintegrating out of school children in both primary and secondary School.
- Advocacy for inclusive education, which should include not only children with disabilities, but all children with special needs.
- Support to the Health and Family Life Education (HFLE) Programme
- Guaranteeing universal quality education
- Retention in school, especially in grade 6
- Violence in schools and bullying
- Guyana has made outstanding progress in MDG1, particularly in the area of halving the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.
- Guyana is among thirty-eight countries which have met internationally-established targets in the fight against hunger, chalking up successes ahead of the deadline set for 2015. In addition, the country has also met the more stringent World Food Summit (WFS) goal, having reduced by half the absolute number of undernourished people between 1990-92 and 2010-2012.
- The prevalence of undernourishment has reduced from 19.1% between 1990 – 1992 to 5.1% between 2010 and 2012.
- The absolute number of undernourished persons fell from 143,000 to 38,000 over the same time period.
- Malnutrition among children was 11.8 % in 1997 and in 2008, data showed that 6 % of children under 5 experienced mild to moderate malnutrition and less than 1% suffered from severe malnutrition.
- Guyana was identified as one of several countries in the Latin America and Caribbean region to have halved the proportion of hungry people.
- In recognition of this achievement, Guyana was among several other countries which were honoured at a special award ceremony held by FAO in Rome in June of 2013.
- With respect to the poverty, the proportion of persons living in extreme poverty declined from 28.7% in 1993 to 18.6% in 2006. In order to meet the MDG target, the extreme poverty rate must be reduced by 4 percentage points by 2015.
MDG 1 : Achievements
- The four key dimensions of food security are access to food, availability of food, the biological utilisation of food, and the stability of the first three dimensions.
- Food insecurity today is largely a problem of access to the resources or services needed by families to produce, purchase, or otherwise obtain enough nutritious food.
- Agriculture plays a pivotal role in providing access to food. More than 70 percent of the poor live in rural areas and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. Raising agricultural productivity is therefore an important element in improving access to food.
- Nutrition is another important aspect of food security not only from undernutrition but also malnutrition. Obesity and the incidence of chronic non communicable diseases, which result from the consumption of processed foods and foods which are low in nutritional content.
- There is also the issue of poverty. Poverty is among the main determinants of hunger and inadequate access to food.
- The achievement of MDG1 has been accomplished by a range of programmes targeting nutrition and food insecurity. Government’s efforts in these areas include the Grow More Food Campaign, the Basic Nutrition Programme and the National School Feeding Programme.
- For its part, FAO has assisted the Government of Guyana to develop a National Food and Nutrition Security Strategy in 2010 and is currently providing technical assistance to implement several components of the strategy, in an effort to reduce hunger and poverty by addressing the root causes of food insecurity and nutrition in Guyana.
- Recognizing that climate change impacts the four key dimensions of food security and the need for agriculture to adapt to significant impacts of climate change, while at the same time providing food for a growing population, FAO has recently assisted the government to develop a National Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Plan for the agricultural sector.
- Other areas of support included improving the livelihoods of rural women through the establishment of poultry facilities.
- Although food availability is not an issue in Guyana, making food accessible to the population, particularly to the hinterland communities, as well as remote rural and urban areas, remains a challenge.
- Inadequate access to food by the poor and vulnerable.
- Unhealthy food choices.