This new publication seeks to provide an analytical description of the different governance schemes chosen by the countries in the region to tackle the issue of food insecurity, in addition to demonstrating how government actors and civil society are organized in these countries, and whether to define initiatives and policies or reach agreements on their respective implementation and evaluation.
Emma Siliprandi, coordinator of the regional project of Support to the Strategies of Food and Nutrition Security and Poverty Reduction in Latin America and the Caribbean, which produced the study, also highlights the significant progress made in the interaction between the policy-makers and technical bodies; in terms of developing systems to monitor the state of food and nutritional security in the countries and the development of policies on the topic, thus contributing to decision-making. "The progress made in the region with regard to applying the legal and institutional frameworks of FNS is clear evidence that the capacity to meet social demands is the result of constant interaction between a broad and diverse group of actors from various backgrounds”, added Siliprandi.
Challenges and Gaps
The main challenges and gaps observed in the study include the broad and diverse integration of civil society and the inclusion of private actors in the public policy decision-making processes, in order to give continuity to the State's actions beyond the Governments. "In addition, an ongoing challenge is to achieve further progress in forming a multisectoral approach for the development of policies, plans and programmes,” stated the project coordinator.
In terms of the governance processes currently underway, it is necessary to implement mechanisms of transparency and accountability that promote public oversight of FNS initiatives, and which create favorable conditions to generate greater trust in the entities involved. In turn, this will give impetus to strengthening the networks of national and local actors.
Overview of the legal frameworks for FNS in the region
The region of Latin America and Caribbean has a Framework Law on the Right to Food, Food Security and Food Sovereignty; approved in 2012 by the Latin American Parliament. In addition, the following seven countries already have National FNS or Food Sovereignty Laws in place: Guatemala, Brazil, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Honduras, and recently, the Dominican Republic. At the sub-national level, Mexico City (formerly the Federal District) can be cited, which also approved a FNS Law. In addition, in Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Haiti and Mexico, draft laws on FNS are under discussion, and in at least nine countries in the region, their respective Constitutions directly reference the exercise of the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) by their citizens.